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Home Page for the Information Technology (IT) Discipline

"Business Resource Management"


Table of Contents

Introduction: Introduction to Business Resource Management
Framework: Using This Artifact as a "Business Resource Management Framework"
Key Terms: Key Terms for Business Resource Management
Glossary: The "Business Resource Management Glossary"
Capabilities: Business Resource Management as an Enterprise Capability
Ownership: Clearly Defined Business Resource Management Ownership is Critical for Success
Verbs and Actions: Understanding Why Verbs and Actions are Important to Business Resource Management
Roles: Key Verb and Action Driven Roles For Business Resource Management
Taxonomy: Understanding Business Resource Management Classifications or Categorizations
Ontology: Business Resource Management Ontology as a Means for Language Standardization
Life Cycle (Lifecycle): Lifecycle Phases for Business Resource Management
Inventories: Business Resource Management Inventories
Environments: Business Resource Management Environments
Metrics: Business Resource Management Metrics
Services: Business Resource Management as a Set of Services (a.k.a. Business Resource Management Services)
Service Paradigms: Centralized Business Resource Management vs. Federated Business Resource Management
Principles & Best Practices: Common Principles and Best Practices for Business Resource Management
Further Reading and Reference Material for Business Resource Management


Introduction: Introduction to Business Resource Management

This document represents an aggregated, ordered and contextualized view of the material we've been able to compile and publish that is related to the topic of "Business Resource Management." The goal is to make this page a landing and launch point for all things related to this topic. As our content becomes more complete and more accurate, this page should become a very useful and powerful knowledge base for this topic and all parties interested in it.

You'll find that the content for this document is consistent with that of other discipline related documents. This is intentional. The consistency is based on a knowledge pattern that helps individuals learn more about different topics, quicker and more efficiently. We hope you find the material useful and easy to learn.

It's important to realize that content in this document and any related sub-documents are constantly evolving. Therefore, we recommend you check for updates, regularly, to keep up with the latest material.

The Foundation always welcomes your feedback and suggestions for improvement, as we're always looking for ways to improve our solutions and offerings to the general community.

All solutions published by the Foundation are subject to the terms and conditions of the Foundation's Master Agreement.


Framework: Using This Artifact as a "Business Resource Management Framework"

This document or artifact, along with everything in it, is intended to act as a "Framework" that addresses various aspects of Business Resource Management.

The readers will notice that most sections in the Table of Contents (TOC) use a format where the TOC entry is prefixed with a topic name, followed by a short descriptive title (i.e. "TOPIC_NAME: TOPIC_RELATED_SECTION_TITLE"). This is intentional and represents a format by which the Foundation may achieve things like the identification of appropriate topic areas, the segregation of distinct topic areas from each other, the appropriate ordering of topic areas, and achieve the maintenance of consistency, both, within and across different IT Disciplines.

To elaborate, this artifact is intended to:

  1. Organize different areas of the discipline known as Business Resource Management into clear and compartmentalized areas that allow the Foundation to more effectively and productively collect, document and publish information that pertains to this discipline.
  2. Decompose each area of Business Resource Management into smaller and, therefore, more digestible units for more efficient learning and understanding.
  3. Document common industry wisdom about each area, piece or subcomponent of Business Resource Management
  4. Act as a set of Business Resource Management related best practices and guidelines that have been collected, documented, and published for the benefit of IT Professionals, regardless of their specific industry, line of business, or area of expertise.
  5. Act as a consistent and repeatable pattern for documenting, publishing and learning, both, within this Discipline and across "all" Disciplines.

From the Foundation's perspective, if done correctly, all of the above will allow the Foundation to properly decompose, document and publish content related to each sub-area or sub-topic for each IT Discipline, including this specific discipline (i.e. "Business Resource Management").

From the reader's perspective, if done correctly, all of the above will allow him or her to easily find and learn about specific areas of interest associated with this and all other IT Disciplines in a manner where the reader may effectively consume and digest material in small atomic segments that act as repeatable and more effective learning units.

As this artifact evolves and progresses, the reader will see it address key areas of the professional IT Discipline "Business Resource Management" that range from its detailed definition through closely related terms, phrases and their definitions, to its detailed specification of Business Resource Management Capabilities, and all the way through to defining, delivering, operating and supporting Business Resource Management Services.

As mentioned previously, this document will continue to evolve and the Foundation recommends the reader check back, regularly, to stay abreast of modifications and new developments. It is also important to understand that the structure of this artifact may change to meet the needs of such evolution.


Key Terms for Business Resource Management

Before moving on to learn more about the rest of the Business Resource Management framework, we suggest that you take some time to familiarlize yourself with the following very basic term(s)...

Business Resource:

"1. A Resources, human or otherwise, that exists to facilitate the performance and operations of a Business or some piece of a Business."

Business Resource Management:

"1. The professional discipline that involves working with, in or on any aspect of planning, delivering, operating or supporting for one or more Business Resource Items or any and all solutions put in place to deal with such Items.

2. The solution set that a person or organization puts in place to manage one or more Business Resource Items.

3. The process or processes put in place by a person or organization to assist in the management, coordination, control, delivery, or support of one or more Business Resource Items.

4. The Enterprise Capability that represents the general ability or functional capacity for a Resource or Organization to deal with or handle one or more Business Resource Items. Such a term is often used by Information Technology (IT) Architects when performing or engaging in the activities associated with general Capability Modeling."

In addition to the above basic term(s), you can also learn a great deal about Business Resource Management by familiarizing yourself with the broader spectrum of terms that make up the Business Resource Management Glossary...


Glossary: The "Business Resource Management Glossary"

IT Glossary

Language between IT professionals and the businesses we serve is often a significant barrier to success, as we often spend countless hours trying to interpret each other's meanings. This is often also true between IT professionals who are taught to use certain terms and definitions as part of the organizations and industries they serve. It's when you start to jump from organization to organization, from enterprise to enterprise, and from industry to industry that you realize how much time and effort is wasted on just getting language and meanings correct. For these reasons, the Foundation puts a great deal of focus on terms and phrases, as well as their corresponding definitions. We highly recommend you spend time learning and understanding all of the related terms and phrases, along with their meanings, for all areas of "Business Resource Management."

Business Resource Management Glossary
Business Resource Business Resource Management Project
Business Resource Automation Business Resource Management Reference Architecture
Business Resource Capacity Management Business Resource Management Release
Business Resource Catalog Business Resource Management Report
Business Resource Catalogue Business Resource Management Reporting
Business Resource Configuration Business Resource Management Roadmap
Business Resource Configuration Item Business Resource Management Role
Business Resource Configuration Management Business Resource Management Rule
Business Resource Cost Business Resource Management Schedule
Business Resource Data Entity Business Resource Management Security
Business Resource Database Business Resource Management Service
Business Resource Decommission Business Resource Management Service Assurance
Business Resource Delivery Business Resource Management Service Contract
Business Resource Dependency Business Resource Management Service Level Agreement (SLA)
Business Resource Deployment Business Resource Management Service Level Objective (SLO)
Business Resource Document Business Resource Management Service Level Requirement (SLR)
Business Resource Document Management Business Resource Management Service Level Target (SLT)
Business Resource File Plan Business Resource Management Service Provider
Business Resource Framework Business Resource Management Service Request
Business Resource Governance Business Resource Management Software
Business Resource History Business Resource Management Solution
Business Resource Identifier Business Resource Management Stakeholder
Business Resource Inventory Business Resource Management Standard
Business Resource Item Business Resource Management Strategy
Business Resource Lifecycle Business Resource Management Supply
Business Resource Lifecycle Management Business Resource Management Support
Business Resource Management Business Resource Management System
Business Resource Management Application Business Resource Management Theory
Business Resource Management Best Practice Business Resource Management Training
Business Resource Management Blog Business Resource Management Vision
Business Resource Management Capability Business Resource Management Wiki
Business Resource Management Center of Excellence Business Resource Management Workflow
Business Resource Management Certification Business Resource Metadata
Business Resource Management Class Business Resource Migration
Business Resource Management Community of Practice (CoP) Business Resource Plan
Business Resource Management Course Business Resource Portfolio
Business Resource Management Data Business Resource Portfolio Management
Business Resource Management Data Dictionary Business Resource Processing
Business Resource Management Database Business Resource Record
Business Resource Management Demand Business Resource Records Management
Business Resource Management Dependency Business Resource Repository
Business Resource Management Discussion Forum Business Resource Reuse
Business Resource Management Document Business Resource Review
Business Resource Management Documentation Business Resource Schedule
Business Resource Management File Plan Business Resource Schematic (Schema)
Business Resource Management Form Business Resource Security
Business Resource Management Framework Business Resource Software
Business Resource Management Governance Business Resource Strategy
Business Resource Management Knowledge Business Resource Support
Business Resource Management Lessons Learned Business Resource Taxonomy
Business Resource Management Metric Business Resource Termination
Business Resource Management Operating Model Business Resource Tracking
Business Resource Management Organization Business Resource Tracking Software
Business Resource Management Plan Business Resource Transaction
Business Resource Management Platform Business Resource Unique Identifier
Business Resource Management Policy Business Resource Verification
Business Resource Management Portfolio Business Resource Version
Business Resource Management Principle Business Resource Workflow
Business Resource Management Procedure Centralized Business Resource Management
Business Resource Management Process Decentralized Business Resource Management
Business Resource Management Professional Enterprise Business Resource Management
Business Resource Management Program Federated Business Resource Management
Business Resource Management Project Regional Business Resource Management

Please refer to the IT Glossary for other terms and phrases that may be relevant to this professional discipline.

Readers may also refer to the Taxonomy of Glossaries for terms and phrases that are semantically grouped according to IT Disciplines or enterprise domains.

This Business Resource Management Glossary is a contextual subset of the master IF4IT Glossary of Terms and Phrases. The master glossary can be used by you and your enterprise as a foundation for broader understanding of Information Technology and can be used as a teaching and learning tool for those you work with, helping to ensure a common and more standard language.


Capabilities: Business Resource Management as an Enterprise Capability

A Capability, as it pertains to Information Technology (IT) or to an enterprise that an IT Organization serves, is defined to be "A manageable feature, faculty, function, process, service or discipline that represents an ability to perform something which yields an expected set of results and is capable of further advancement or development. In other words, a Capability is nothing more than "the ability to do something" or, quite simply, a Feature or Function. Therefore, when applied to an enterprise, a Capability represents a critical Enterprise Feature or Enterprise Function.

When it comes to Capabilities, there are multiple types that an enterprise needs to be aware of. Examples include but are not limited to:

As can be seen above, there are Capabilities that are associated with Resources, Organizations, and Assets such as Systems. All are important to an enterprise.

In the case of this IT Discipline (i.e. Business Resource Management), we use the word Capability in the context of an Enterprise Capability or an IT Capability, which are both equivalent to Enterprise Disciplines or IT Disciplines, respectively. In short, the Capability of Business Resource Management represents the ability to deal with any and all Business Resource Items and anything relevant that is related to or associated with any Business Resource Items.

If you think about it, a capability is really nothing more than a "verb" or "action that represents "the ability to do something." Understanding this allows us to derive a consistent and highly repeatable set of sub-capabilities for any Noun we're dealing with. For example:

In summary, the implication is that the Enterprise Capability or Enterprise Discipline known as Business Resource Management is the superset of all the above Sub-Capabilities, as they pertain to or are applied to the discipline-specific Noun: "Business Resource." This now translates more specifically to:

For a more complete list of very specific Capabilities/Disciplines, refer to the Foundation's Master Inventory of IT Disciplines. It is important to note that this inventory is in a flat or non-hierarchical form, specifically because "hierarchy" is almost always a matter of personal preference or context (what hierarchy is important to one Resource or Organization may be unimportant to another's needs or requirements). Therefore, the Foundation has published its inventory of Capabilities in a non-hierarchical, flat form.

This now brings us to a very obvious problem that surrounds Capabilities, which is the fact that there are simply too many "granular" or "specific" Capabilities to document and publish in any single Capability Model. The end result is that a Capability Model may become unwieldy because of trying to incorporate so many different specific Capabilities. Also, Capability Modeling "Purists," who all have their own (and very differing) opinions about how Capability Models should or should not be represented, almost always refuse to get into the details. To address this, we recommend using a generic set of Capabilities that map to and are driven by the Systems Development Life Cycle. For example:

As you can see from the above, we now have a very limited, controlled and manageable set of Discipline-specific Capabilities for the Discipline Business Resource Management.

As a reminder, the above Capability representations are "suggestions" for baselining or initializing your own Enterprise Capability Model (ECM). It's recommended that you take the time to work with your enterprise stakeholders to improve upon and/or customize your own ECM so that you can help meet their needs. However, with that being said, it's always a better idea to go in with a baseline that you can modify rather than building your own solution from scratch, especially if your goals are to standardize, not reinvent the wheel, and not deviate too far from what other enterprises are doing to model their own environments. This is especially true if you've never had any experience building ECMs that have gained and maintained full adoption.

Why do enterprises perform Capability Modeling? Enterprises most often build Capability Models that are associated with Business Resource Management for the following reasons...

Capability Modeling Recommendations: Some things to consider and keep in mind when working on or creating your Business Resource Management and Enterprise Capability Models...

Learn More About Capability Models: Taking the time to learn about and understand Capability Models, what they're for, and how they're used may help you learn how Business Resource Management better fits into the broader enterprise. Therefore, we suggest you spend some time reviewing and understanding the IF4IT Enterprise Capability Model...

Enterprise Capability Model

Ownership: Clearly Defined Business Resource Management Ownership is Critical for Success

IT Discipline Ownership

Here's a very simple fact... If an enterprise does not establish and enforce clearly defined Ownership (i.e. a Resources and his or her Organization are assigned as accountable ownership) for Business Resource Management, the enterprise has automatically set itself up for failure in its implementation of that discipline. Therefore, if you and your enterprise want to implement and maintain a successful solution for Business Resource Management, there must be a clearly defined Owner that can and will be held accountable for getting work done, providing transparency, helping with strategy setting, and coordinating implementation of Business Resource Management as a fully functional and mature enterprise Service.

Having clearly defined Ownership should not be confused with having fully dedicated Resources that spend one hundred percent of their time working on Business Resource Management. In fact, smaller enterprises can rarely afford to dedicate full time Resources, like larger enterprises can, to all enterprise IT Disciplines. This being the case, all IT Disciplines, including Business Resource Management, should "always" have clearly defined Owners so that there is always a clear point of accountability and contact for any issues or work that need to be addressed.

In addition to the common best practice of having clearly assigned Ownership for Business Resource Management, it is also considered a best practice to clearly publish and socialize Business Resource Management Ownership details to a centralized location (often referred to as a "Service Catalog" or an "Enterprise Service Catalog"), along with Ownership details for all other IT Disciplines, so that the entire enterprise has constant access to it.

Canonical Ownership of an Enterprise Capability

Figure: How Ownership of the Capability Business Resource Management fits into the Canonical Model for IT

The above figure helps us understand how Capability or Discipline Ownership fits into the Canonical Model for Information Technology (IT) (i.e. "Think," "Deliver," and "Operate"). Owners are assigned to individual Disciplines or Capabilities, such as Business Resource Management, and are instantly made accountable to the enterprise for the results of all Business Resource Management Thinking activities (i.e. Strategy, Research, Planning and Design), all Business Resource Management Delivery activities (i.e. Construction, Deployment and Quality Assurance), and all Business Resource Management Operations activities (i.e. Use, Maintenance and Support). Done correctly, Business Resource Management Ownership is constant and ongoing. It's important to understand that such assigned Ownership should "never" end so that there is clear and constant accountability and transparency for all aspects of the Canonical Model to the enterprise.

Not having clear Ownership for Business Resource Management means that there is no clear understanding of who is accountable for it, who can provide understanding of what's going on within it, who can help the enterprise provide short term and long term descriptions of work being performed within the Discipline area to improve it over time for its customers, and who can help with getting work done that's associated with it. It means your or your enterprise's implementation for Business Resource Management will be highly incomplete and erratic because no one is constantly (or even partially) watching over the Discipline and its needs for maintenance and evolution. Not having clear Business Resource Management Ownership is a recipe for confusion and, sometimes, even chaos.

In summary, if you and your enterprise truly want to be successful with your implementation of Business Resource Management, ensure that a clear and highly accountable owner is identified and assigned to the Discipline. Publish those ownership details, preferably in an enterprise's Service Catalog, and socialize it so everyone knows whom to go to for answers and for help with Business Resource Management related work. In other words, if you want to implement Business Resource Management as an enterprise Service, then you absolutely must start with clearly defined, published and socialized Ownership.


Verbs and Actions: Understanding Why Verbs and Actions are Important to Business Resource Management

Throughout the Foundation's documentation, you will continuously run into the references of "Nouns and Verbs." These concepts are key to consistency and standardization, throughout the IT Industry, down to each and every IT Discipline. Given that we've discussed the impact of "Nouns" on the discipline of "Business Resource Management," this section will start to discuss the importance of "Verbs" or "Actions" that can be performed with or against the key Noun or Nouns associated with this Discipline. To reiterate, Verbs or Actions allow us to clearly understand what can be performed on or with the Noun in question. As will be discussed in the next section, Verbs or Actions will also help us clearly identify whom it is (i.e. the "who" or more specifically the Roles) that performs or executes such Verbs or Actions against a Discipline and its associated Noun or Nouns. As will be discussed later, Verbs or Actions will also help identify key Attributes (i.e. Field Names) that are necessary for the very data definition of the Noun or Nouns for this Discipline and will even help identify which Verbs or Actions can be automated for this Discipline.

As a reminder, the base Noun for the discipline known as Business Resource Management is: "Business Resource," which is sometimes referred to as a the Noun: "Business Resource Item."

By now, it should be becoming apparent that verbs represent a baseline for defining solid functional requirements and sub-capabilities for what would be a part of any good Business Resource Management System or Service. What this means is that if you and/or your Organization is looking for a solution in this space (e.g. the purchasing or building of a software solution or the implementation of a Service to address the needs of Business Resource Management), you could use discipline-related verbs to drive the foundation of what the solution should or shouldn't do, as mapped to specific stakeholders that will use or provide the solution.

Examples of the types of Verbs or Actions that are important to this Discipline include but are not limited to:

The above list represents a very small subset of all Verbs or Actions that are relevant for this Discipline. The more complete set can be found in the Roles section of this document, where readers can see the direct correlation of Verb to Noun and to, both, Generic Role and Discipline Specific Role.


Roles: Key Verb and Action Driven Roles For Business Resource Management

An "action" or a "verb" is something that can be performed on or with a specific "noun." The reason it is important to itemize all relevant verbs is because we can now start to determine what we can or cannot do with the noun in question, where in this case the noun is "Business Resource."

Actions/Verbs Example as Applied to "Business Resource" Generic Roles Discipline-Specific Roles
Administrate Administrate Business Resource Administrator Business Resource Administrator
Approve Approve Business Resource Approver Business Resource Approver
Architect Architect Business Resource Architector Business Resource Architector
Archive Archive Business Resource Archiver Business Resource Archiver
Audit Audit Business Resource Auditor Business Resource Auditor
Bundle Bundle Business Resource Bundler Business Resource Bundler
Clone Clone Business Resource Cloner Business Resource Cloner
Code Code Business Resource Coder Business Resource Coder
Configure Configure Business Resource Configurer Business Resource Configurer
Copy Copy Business Resource Copier Business Resource Copier
Create Create Business Resource Creator Business Resource Creator
Decommission Decommission Business Resource Decommissioner Business Resource Decommissioner
Delete Delete Business Resource Deletor Business Resource Deletor
Deploy Deploy Business Resource Deployer Business Resource Deployer
Deprecate Deprecate Business Resource Deprecator Business Resource Deprecator
Design Design Business Resource Designer Business Resource Designer
Destroy Destroy Business Resource Destroyer Business Resource Destroyer
Develop Develop Business Resource Developer Business Resource Developer
Distribute Distribute Business Resource Distributor Business Resource Distributor
Download Download Business Resource Downloader Business Resource Downloader
Edit Edit Business Resource Editor Business Resource Editor
Educate Educate Business Resource Educator Business Resource Educator
Export Export Business Resource Exporter Business Resource Exporter
Govern Govern Business Resource Governor Business Resource Governor
Import Import Business Resource Importer Business Resource Importer
Initialize Initialize Business Resource Initializer Business Resource Initializer
Install Install Business Resource Installer Business Resource Installer
Instantiate Instantiate Business Resource Instantiator Business Resource Instantiator
Integrate Integrate Business Resource Integrator Business Resource Integrator
Manage Manage Business Resource Manager Business Resource Manager
Merge Merge Business Resource Merger Business Resource Merger
Modify Modify Business Resource Modifier Business Resource Modifier
Move Move Business Resource Mover Business Resource Mover
Own Own Business Resource Owner Business Resource Owner
Package Package Business Resource Packager Business Resource Packager
Persist Persist Business Resource Persister Business Resource Persister
Plan Plan Business Resource Planner Business Resource Planner
Purge Purge Business Resource Purger Business Resource Purger
Receive Receive Business Resource Receiver Business Resource Receiver
Record Record Business Resource Recorder Business Resource Recorder
Recover Recover Business Resource Recoverer Business Resource Recoverer
Register Register Business Resource Registrar Business Resource Registrar
Relocate Relocate Business Resource Relocator Business Resource Relocator
Reject Reject Business Resource Rejecter Business Resource Rejecter
Remove Remove Business Resource Remover Business Resource Remover
Replicate Replicate Business Resource Replicator Business Resource Replicator
Report Report Business Resource Reporter Business Resource Reporter
Request Request Business Resource Requestor Business Resource Requestor
Restore Restore Business Resource Restorer Business Resource Restorer
Review Review Business Resource Reviewer Business Resource Reviewer
Save Save Business Resource Saver Business Resource Saver
Search Search Business Resource Searcher Business Resource Searcher
Split Split Business Resource Splitter Business Resource Splitter
Sponsor Sponsor Business Resource Sponsor Business Resource Sponsor
Store Store Business Resource Storer Business Resource Storer
Strategize Strategize Business Resource (or Set Business Resource Strategy) Strategizer (or Strategy Setter) Business Resource Strategizer (or Business Resource Strategy Setter)
Support Support Business Resource Supporter Business Resource Supporter
Test Test Business Resource Tester Business Resource Tester
Train Train Business Resource Trainer Business Resource Trainer
Upgrade Upgrade Business Resource Upgrader Business Resource Upgrader
Upload Upload Business Resource Uploader Business Resource Uploader
Verify Verify Business Resource Verifier Business Resource Verifier
Version Version Business Resource Versioner Business Resource Versioner
View View Business Resource Viewer Business Resource Viewer

At a minimum, the above list of Verbs can be used to help identify, track, and manage the basic "Features" required by and associated with Business Resource Management, even if your enterprise doesn't maintain a Capability Model that lists specific Business Resource Management Capabilities. Application designers, developers, and architects often find such Verb Lists or Feature Inventories to be invaluable.


Taxonomy: Understanding Business Resource Management Classifications or Categorizations

IF4IT Taxonomies

A Taxonomy, in its noun form, is defined as:

...a documented and orderly set of types, classifications, categorizations and/or principles that are often achieved through mechanisms including but not limited to naming, defining and/or the grouping of attributes, and which ultimately help to describe, differentiate, identify, arrange and provide contextual relationships between the entities for which the Taxonomy exists.

From this general definition, we can derive that the definition for a Business Resource Management Taxonomy is:

...a documented and orderly set of types, classifications, categorizations and/or principles that are often achieved through mechanisms including but not limited to naming, defining and/or the grouping of attributes, and which ultimately help to describe, differentiate, identify, arrange and provide contextual relationships between Business Resource Items, Entities or Types.

In short, what this means all means is that a Taxonomy is nothing more than a classification or typing mechanism and that a Business Resource Taxonomy is nothing more than a classification or typing mechanism that helps people and systems distinguish between different Business Resource Items, Entities, Types, Records or any other Business Resource Management element you can think of.

It's important to understand that Taxonomies can be as simple as a list of relevant terms or phrases with respective meanings or definitions or they can take on more complex forms, such as hierarchical and graphical model structures that can be homogeneous and heterogeneous in nature. More complex Taxonomies include examples such as "Visual Taxonomies" and "Audible Taxonomies" but, expect in the case of very special technologies, are typically out of scope for general Information Technology (IT) Operations.

The Foundation directs readers to its ever-evolving Inventory of Taxonomies for Standard Taxonomy suggestions. Specifically, readers may want to start with the Taxonomy of Taxonomies, which helps make it clear that the IT Industry is composed of many hundreds if not thousands of Taxonomies, Classifications, Categorizations or Types.


Ontology: Business Resource Management Ontology as a Means for Lanagugae Standardization

While Taxonomies represent organized classifications or types, you can think of Ontologies as the design and representation of entire lanaguages, with the specific intent to control things like structure, behavior, representation, and meaning. Without getting into a theoretical conversations about Ontologies, you can view this entire article as a foundation for the ontology of Business Resource Management. Or, in other words, a Business Resource Management Ontology.

Throughout this artifact/framework, you will find things like Business Resource Management related terms, phrases, definitions, roles, responsibilities, nouns, verbs, classifications, and so on, all as a means of definining a standard representation for and interpretation of the language of Business Resource Management.

It is only through the definition, communication, and establishment of such Ontologies that we can standardize language and communication associated with Business Resource Management, whether it be between humans and/or systems.


Life Cycle (Lifecycle): Lifecycle Phases for Business Resource Management

When we talk about Life Cycle (or lifecycle) for Business Resource Management, it's important to keep in mind that there are two different types of Life Cycles that apply. The first is a Data Life Cycle, which addresses Business Resource Management data or entities, and the second is associated with delivering Business Resource Management Assets like Systems or Software solutions.

Business Resource Management Data Life Cycle Phases:

Data Lifecycle (or Life Cycle) for any and all data is the period from the "inception" of data through to its ultimately being "purged" from existence. This is no different for Business Resource Management related data.

Like the data associated with any other professional IT Discipline, Business Resource Management related data adheres to the following common Data Lifecycle Phases:

Data Lifecycle Phases

Figure: Business Resource Management Lifecycle Phases

  1. Inception: Data is in it's raw idea-like form and is not ready for consumption by the general population because it has not been documented or registered, anywhere, in a formal manner.
  2. Creation and Registration: Data is formally put into existence for day-to-day use by appropriate stakeholders.
  3. Iterative Maintenance: Data is in a mode of constant use and is updated and modified, as needed, to meet the needs of daily use by various stakeholders.
  4. Decommission and Deletion: Data is prepared for deletion and eventually deleted from daily operational use but still exists for administrative or organizational purposes, such as historical auditing. It can be restored to any one of its relevant last states and, therefore, can be brought back into existence for day-to-day use.
  5. Purged From Existence: Data is completely removed from an environment with no means to restore or reconstruct it, without recreating it from scratch and with no guarantees that it will match it's previous state.

The above Life Cycle Phases represent the high level transitions that occur from the inception of Business Resource Items or Entities all the way through to their complete elimination from existence. A more detailed breakdown of these transitions or phases represents what are referred to as "Business Resource Management States."

Business Resource Management Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phases or Business Resource Management Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phases:

The SDLC is a means for facilitating and controlling how IT Professionals deliver Assets, such as Business Resource Management Systems and Software. In this case, you should default to the master SDLC, which is used to deliver any Asset of any type, including those associated with the Business Resource Management discipline.

Business Resource Management SDLC Diagram

Inventories: Business Resource Management Inventories

There are probably no greater or more important tools for providing Business Resource Management transparency and direction than the collection, ordering, categorizing, grouping, and maintenance of all related Business Resource Items. In other words, Business Resource Management Inventories.

In short, an Inventory represents a list of individual things or instances of things that are typically all of the same Noun Type or Data Type, where these instances are described and detailed by their Attributes, along with the Data and Information that act as values for such Attributes.

At a minimum, Business Resource Management Inventories are used for the establishment of solid Business Resource Configuration Management practices, as the Business Resource Instances tracked within such Business Resource Inventories act as Configuration Items (in Target and/or Dependency form) for key Configurations (Business Resource Management Configurations or otherwise).

Inventories are also used for solid decision making. Good decisions, either strategic or tactical, are made based on having good Data and Information. And, good Data and Information only come from taking the time to follow best practices associated with Inventory Management. It's only through building such Inventories that an enterprise can achieve solid Business Resource Management Business Intelligence and Reporting.

Also, it's these very same Inventories that act as the foundation for understanding and managing Total Cost of Ownership (a.k.a. "TCO") for Business Resource Management. Without such Inventories, trying to understand your costs can be nothing more than uneducated guessing.

The obvious place to start is with Business Resource Inventories and then move on to surrounding Inventories that are directly and indirectly related to Business Resource Management.

Additionally, there are many other types of Inventories that are common and important to Business Resource Management, which include but are not limited to examples such as:

  1. People and Organizations related to Business Resource Management
  2. Roles, Responsibilities, and Skills related to Business Resource Management
  3. Products and Services related to Business Resource Management
  4. Capabilities related to Business Resource Management
  5. Contracts, Agreements, and Licenses related to Business Resource Management
  6. Processes related to Business Resource Management
  7. Tools and Technologies (e.g. Systems/Applications/Software/Computers) related to Business Resource Management
  8. Data Types and Instances related to Business Resource Management
  9. Data Interfaces related to Business Resource Management
  10. Environments related to Business Resource Management
  11. Facilities and Locations related to Business Resource Management

If you and/or your enterprise are not collecting and maintaining such Inventories, you're probably considered to be very low on the efficiency and effectiveness maturity scale.

It's important to keep in mind that collecting and managing Business Resource Management Inventories is something that should be performed across all phases of Business Resource Management Lifecycle and across all Environments (i.e. Business Resource Management Environments). Both are considered to be very important Best Practices. For example, you and/or your enterprise cannot get a complete understanding of Business Resource Management costs or impacts without knowing all related Inventory Items in all environments. And, tracking across all lifecycle phases gives a temporal perspective that is important for things like problem analysis, historical reporting, and the reconstruction of state (i.e. Configuration Management).

NOTE: Business Resource Management Inventories are also important for other enterprise functions, such as Architecture and Design. Such Inventories represent the foundation for understanding an enterprise's Current State and are critical for planning Future State and any related strategies, roadmaps, and transition plans for facilititating change.


Environments: Business Resource Management Environments

Building environments that are specific to and for the discipline known as Business Resource Management is no different than doing so for any other discipline area. The reader should, therefore, refer to the IT Environment Framework to understand such environments.

IT Environment Framework for Business Resource Management

Metrics: Business Resource Management Metrics

As with any professional Discipline, the place to start with when dealing with Business Resource Management specific metrics is with standard metrics categorizations. Standard Metrics Categorizations, or what are commonly referred to as "SMCs," include but are not limited to...

Business Resource Management Quantitative Metrics: Quantitative metrics for Business Resource Management often revolve around the "counting" of key constructs that are associated with the Discipline. For example, the number of Business Resource Items or Entities that have been Created, Edited or Modified, Copied or Cloned, Destroyed, Archived, Restored, etc. (Note the correlations to key Business Resource Management Verbs!). Also, the counts for things like the number of Business Resource Management Stakeholders, such as but not limited to Paying Customers, End Users, Employees, Consultants, etc. are also very useful.

Business Resource Management Qualitative Metrics: Qualitative metrics for Business Resource Management often revolve around concepts such as Business Resource Management Defects, Failures, Problems, Incidents, and/or Issues. So, for example, if we were to capture the number of Business Resource Management Defects (i.e. their counts) over time, we could do things like see if Defect quantities are going up or down, over time, allowing us to explore that area for things like correlating Causes and Effects.

Business Resource Management Time Metrics: When dealing with Business Resource Management Time Metrics, there are usually two forms. The first was introduced in the previous paragraph, which has to do with capturing and measuring things like Quantitative or Qualitative Metrics, over time. In this case, we capture other metric categories, over time, with the intent to see how they change and perform, based on modifications to the Business Resource Management Operating Environment. The second form of Time related metrics has to do with system or operational performance, such as in the case of how long it takes to process a Business Resource Management Request, from the time it is created to the time the Requester gets a satisfactory deliverable that allows him or her to move on with his or her work.

Business Resource Management Utilization Metrics: Utilization Metrics specifically have to do with the consumption of Business Resource Management specific solutions or deliverables. For example, tracking the number of Business Resource Management Service Requests, over periods of time, along with their corresponding Business Resource Management Deliverables, allows one to measure how active Business Resource Management Services are against other Services that may exist within the Enterprise.

Business Resource Management Financial Metrics: As is always the case for any single Discipline, Financial Metrics for Business Resource Management always revolve around things like revenue, expenses, and profits, both, for operators of the Service or Services and for consumers of the Service or Services. For example, if a Business Resource Management Request is invoked by a Business Resource Management Customer (acting as the "Requester"), it becomes important to be able to identify and understand what the cost is to that Customer who is invoking the Request, and it also becomes important to understand why that cost is what it is. In the case of Services that do not yield revenue or profits, measuring costs is a strong way to, at very least, help understand the costs associated with each Service being performed by, within, external to, and for the Enterprise and its Customers.

Note: It's important to understand that, when it comes to metrics, enterprises should take a "Crawl," "Walk," "Run" approach to collecting, working with, and understanding them. That is, you cannot get to complex metrics collection, dissection, analysis, and understanding until you start with basic metrics and slowly work your way to more complex metrics representations.


Services: Business Resource Management as a Set of Services (a.k.a. Business Resource Management Services)

One of the most important concepts you will learn about Business Resource Management (or any Discipline, for that matter) is the notion of implementing the Discipline as an accountable, planned, controlled, transparent, and managed "Service."

In short, Services represent a logically "bounded" and repeatable sets of work types, activities or tasks that are performed by humans and/or machines, with the specific intent to provide outputs or deliverables, in the form of solutions for the requesting Stakeholders who are commonly considered the customers of such Services. In other words, we perform and/or provide a Service to deliver very specific solutions to very specific Stakeholders who are looking for a means to solve a certain problem they have.

A Business Resource Management Service is defined as:

"1. A set of solutions, either transactional (i.e. Transactional Business Resource Management Services) or dial-tone (i.e. Dial-Tone Business Resource Management Services), that are being or have been put in place to yield an intended, controlled, expected, repeatable and measurable set of results or deliverables for Business Resource Management specific Customers, Consumers or Clients.

NOTE: Business Resource Management Service Consumers or Clients can be either Human Resources or Systems."

All Services, including Business Resource Management Services, can be performed manually (i.e. by people), automatically (i.e. by machines such as Computers), or by a combination of the two (i.e. a hybrid that is both manually and automated).

Also, all Services, including Business Resource Management Services, can be either transactional or dial tone, in nature.

In the case of Transactional Services for Business Resource Management, a Service Request is submitted and that Request is fulfilled as part of a process that is either manual, automated, or a hybrid of both (e.g. a Service to perform maintainance on your Business Resource Management System).

In the case of Dial Tone Services for Business Resource Management, a Service is expected to be up, running, available, and accessible to an End User so that he/she/it may perform some controlled and highly repeatable function (e.g. a "Business Resource Management System" that is up and running all the time).

Business Resource Management Service Components: The successful implementation of Business Resource Management as a set of Services for your enterprise usually implies that a number of key components have been established to support it. These components are:

  1. A clearly documented and socialized Business Resource Management Service Owner that is held accountable for Service performance, quality, and cost.
  2. A clearly documented and socialized Business Resource Management Service Provider, Organization or Group who is performing the Service or work.
  3. A clearly documented and socialized inventory of all Business Resource Management Service Inputs, including Business Resource Management Service Requests and any artifacts necessary to support such Requests so that consumers of the Service know how to engage and request or take advantage of them.
  4. For every Business Resource Management Service Input, a clearly documented and socialized inventory of Business Resource Management Service Outputs, making it clear to consumers what they can expect to receive as a result of a successful Service Request.
  5. For every Business Resource Management Service Input, a clearly documented and socialized inventory of the work being performed by the Service Provider to achieve such Outputs or Deliverables.
  6. For every Business Resource Management Service Input, a clearly documented and socialized inventory Service Level Agreements (e.g. Service Availability, Service Duration, Service Guarantees, etc.) that can be used to set expectations and measure actuals against for said Service Outputs.
  7. Clearly specified Business Resource Management Service Costs that help set expectations for Service Requesters (i.e. the cost of a request) and that provide clear transparency to the organizations that fund and sponsor such Services (i.e. the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) your Service(s).
  8. Business Resource Management Service Request Patterns (Estimation Creation, Modification, Decommission, Support/Incidents, Complaints, etc.) in order to create intuitive and repeatable user experiences across different Service Types.
  9. Clearly understand what Business Resource Management Service Resources are required, human or otherwise, to create and deliver your Business Resource Management Service Deliverables, in a repeatable, cost-efficient, timely, and high quality manner.
  10. For every Business Resource Management Service Request, understand the chargeback mechanism, in order to recoup your Service Costs.
  11. For every Business Resource Management Service, it's important to understand the skills that are required, will need to be developed, and will need to be maintained by Service Resources, in order to deliver each Service Deliverable.
  12. It's important to understand who your Business Resource Management Service Stakeholders are, this includes but is not limited to your Customers, Consumers, Clients, Sponsers, etc. are, as well as the types of problems it is that they're trying to solve or interests that they will have in your Services.

Business Resource Management Ownership: The most important thing to understand about a Business Resource Management Service is that, in order for such a Service to be successful, there must be a clear and accountable Owner for it. That is, there needs to be a very clear and accountable named person or organization that owns and is fully responsible for the Service, all of its sub-Services and, most importantly, all of the Service's "Outcomes." Without clear ownership, Services are almost never successful. And, for those few occasions where Services are successful without clear ownership, you can assume that they're successful because the people working in those Service areas are acting as heroes, or... the those Services are just plain lucky (that kind of luck doesn't last for long).

Business Resource Management Service Inputs: There are typically two types of inputs to any Business Resource Management Service. The first is what is known as a "Business Resource Management Service Request" and the second really represents any and all supporting artifacts that are necessary to support such requests, including but not limited to Data and Information in the form of Documents, either electronic or paper in form. Many would argue that the "money" to pay for the Service execution of the Request would be the third but, for now, we will assume that payment is controlled through the Data and Information provided to the Service Operators, in support of the Request.

Business Resource Management Service Outputs: The outputs of any Service are often referred to as the Service's Deliverables. Therefore, the readers should be aware that the terms "Business Resource Management Outputs" and "Business Resource Management Deliverables" are synonymous and interchangeable. All work performed in any enterprise is, by default, a Service that is being performed for someone else and, therefore, all work or Services yield results. These results are the Service's Outputs or Deliverables and a good Service ensures that such Outputs are appropriately documented to the consumers of said Service. This means that for any given Business Resource Management Service Request Type or Category there will be one or more clearly defined and documented Outputs or Deliverables, making it clear to the consumer what he, she, or they will get in response to their Request. This can be as simple as an answer to a question or as complex as the Merger of two enterprises.

Business Resource Management Service Levels: Service Levels represent "performance agreements," contractual or otherwise, that dictate how well a Business Resource Management Service should perform, most often keeping the Customers, Consumers, Clients or End Users of the Service in mind. Business Resource Management Service Levels can come in many forms and are often worked out by the Customers paying for the Services and the Service Providers who sell or provide the Services. In many cases, Service Levels are also self-imposed by the Service Providers performing the Services as a means to set expectations for Service Customers. In short, Business Resource Management Service Levels are constraints, limitations, and/or expectations that are tied directly to Business Resource Management Service Deliverables. They represent measures for things like quality, efficiency, and cost against said Deliverables or Outputs that allow the consumer of such Services to measure what they actually get against what they expected to get.


Service Paradigms: Centralized Business Resource Management vs. Federated Business Resource Management

Assuming an enterprise pursues the establishment of Business Resource Management as a set of controlled Services, there are three common paradigms for doing so. These include:

  1. A "Centralized Business Resource Management" implementation paradigm
  2. A "Federated Business Resource Management" implementation paradigm
  3. A "Hybrid Business Resource Management" implementation paradigm

Centralized Business Resource Management is defined as:

"1. The term or phrase that implies establishing and/or practicing the Discipline known as Business Resource Management as a concentric and singular set of organizations and services, usually in order to serve an entire enterprise, regardless of geographic location, further implying full centralization and no federation of any and all Business Resource Management associated Work, Activities, Actions, Tasks, Capabilities and/or Services."

Federated Business Resource Management, which is also referred to as Decentralized Business Resource Management, is defined as:

"1. The term or phrase that implies establishing and/or practicing the Discipline known as Business Resource Management in multiple pockets, communities, or organizations, further implying no centralization in the implementation and execution of Business Resource Management associated Work, Activities, Actions, Tasks, Capabilities and/or Services."

There are clear tradeoffs to each of the two models. For example, in a Centralized paradigm, it's normally easier to coordinate work and provide broad coverage, across many areas of the enterprise and relevant stakeholders. However, it becomes far more difficult for a centralized organization to properly fund and staff resources and services in order to perform all required work across all stakeholders, in a much larger enterprise.

It's also important to note that a third paradigm also exists as an option. This is known as a Hybrid Business Resource Management paradigm or model. In this case, there is a centralized Business Resource Management organization that is often responsible for things like centralized governance, command, control, and communications, while federated staff and services deal with localized forms of Business Resource Management. In this type of paradigm, federated staff and services usually report direclty into their local management but may have matrix reporting or responsibilities into the Centralized Business Resource Management organization.


Principles & Best Practices: Common Principles and Best Practices for Business Resource Management

A "Principle" is defined as being: "A professed assumption, basis, tenet, doctrine, plan of action or code of conduct for activities, work or behavior." Therefore, we can deduce the definition of "a Business Resource Management Principle" to be:

Business Resource Management Principle: "1. A professed assumption, basis, tenet, doctrine, plan of action or code of conduct for any activities, work or behavior associated with the Discipline known as Business Resource Management."

A "Best Practice" is defined as being: "One or more Activities, Actions, Tasks or Functions that often do not conform with strict Standards and that have evolved, over time, to be considered as conventional wisdom for consistently and repeated achieving Outcomes or Results that can be measured as being equal to or above acceptable norms." Therefore, we can deduce the definition of "a Business Resource Management Best Practice" to be:

Business Resource Management Best Practice: "1. One or more Business Resource Management related Activities, Actions, Tasks or Functions that often do not conform with strict standards and that have evolved, over time, to be considered as conventional wisdom for consistently and repeatedly achieving Outcomes or Results that can be measured as being equal to or above acceptable norms."

The plural form of this term would be "Business Resource Management Best Practices."

Common Business Resource Management related principles and best practices exist to help achieve higher than average expectations of quality and to ease in the implementation, support, operations, and future change associated with the solutions industry professionals put in place to address the needs of this Discipline and all its related stakeholders.

While this entire document is meant to represent and serve as a set of common principles and best practices for Business Resource Management, the following list represents a summary of some very basic examples of what implementers, supporters, and operators of Business Resource Management should constantly be working toward:

Principle or Best Practice Description
Establish and always have very clear Ownership for Business Resource Management. Establishing, publishing and socializing clear Ownership for Business Resource Management allows an enterprise and all its Resources, regardless of their geographic location, to assign accountability for all aspects of the Discipline. It also ensures that there's always at least one person that everyone can go to for transparency into the Discipline as well as for handling work that is associated with the Discipline.
Define, Collect, and Manage Relevant Business Resource Management Inventories. As an IT professional, there are probably few things that are as important as knowing what is or is not in your portfolio, as well as understanding key traits about your portfolio. You cannot achieve this without the transparency provided by your inventories. Therefore, it is critical that you clearly define, collect, manage, and govern any and all relevant Business Resource Management inventories. Lack of Business Resource Management Inventories means no transparency, a chaotic and immature environment, and (even worse) the implication that you don't know how to do your job.
Always use standard terminology for Business Resource Management, in order to standardize communications between stakeholders. It is often argued that the biggest mistake you can make is to create your own words and/or your own definitions, when communicating with others. There is no place where this is more accurate than in the field of Information Technology. IT Stakeholders make up their own words and definitions far too often, or let their business constituents do so. When you make up words or definitions, or you let others do so, you're creating a grave injustice for your organization. Self invented terminology and grammar often leads to poor communications, which in turn leads to redundancy of solutions, higher complexity of environments, slower delivery times, and much higher costs. Therefore, the IF4IT always recommends that you leverage standard terminology for Business Resource Management, whenever possible.
Centralization of Business Resource related data. While often impossible to centralize and collocate all Business Resource related data and information, especially in a geographically dispersed environment, Business Resource Management related stakeholders should always strive to centralize all data and information. The goals are to eliminate data fragmentation, improve source of truth for data, reduce the number of systems needed to support stakeholders, reduce the complexity of solutions, improve usability, and to ultimately reduce the costs associated with Business Resource Management.
Clearly define, implement, track, and analyze Business Resource Management Metrics. In order to successfully set up the discipline of Business Resource Management and its related Services, it is critical to clearly define, track, and constantly analyze Business Resource Management metrics. Such metrics include but are not limited to Supply and Demand Metrics (i.e. Operational Metrics), Performance Metrics, Quality Metrics, and Financial Metrics.
Transparency of Business Resource related data. Stakeholders should always strive to make any and all Business Resource Management data transparent to all other appropriate stakeholders, at a minimum, and often to the entire enterprises. The exception when private user data must be protected. Many stakeholders often make the mistake of treating internal operational data as private or protected. This often creates a data silo and will often lead to internally silo-ed organizations that revolve around such data silos.
Do not let "perfection" of Business Resource Management solutions stand in the way of "good enough solutions". Often, Business Resource Management stakeholders "overthink" solutions, leading to the impression that best-of-breed or perfect solutions are more effective than "good enough" solutions. Experience tells us that "good enough" is, almost always, the better path to follow. We live in an age where technologies grow old in the blink of an eye. Even the implementation of something that looks perfect, today, will look antiquated, tomorrow. This is especially true if your enterprise doesn't have a long term funding plan and commitment to improvements and upgrades of the solution(s) put in place.
Follow industry Standards, Best Practices, and Guiding Principles for Business Resource Management, whenever possible". One of the most common errors many enterprises make is to create solutions from scratch or without the guidance, assistance and/or experience of others who have created such solutions, before them. Whenever possible, the IF4IT recommends that you research existing Standards, Best Practices, and Guiding Principles to avoid the mistakes of others, while also gaining from their successes. Remember, we live in a vast world. Chances are very high that someone else has already experienced the pain you're about to create for yourself. Wise people will always look to learn from such people's experiences before they go down the road of implementing their own solutions.
Work toward and maintain a Single Source of Truth (SSoT), whenever possible. While it may be impossible to truly maintain a Single Source of Truth (SSoT) for all data items at all times, especially in the case where the same data entity or instance enters an enterprise through unique data channels, it is an accepted, industry-wide best practice to always work toward such a goal.

Further Reading and Reference Material for Business Resource Management

The Information Technology (IT) Learning Framework. A tutorial that helps understand Information Technology and how disciplines, such as this one, fits into the bigger picture of IT Operations.

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