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"Knowledge Management (KM)"


Table of Contents

Introduction: Introduction to Knowledge Management (KM)
Framework: Using This Artifact as a "Knowledge Management (KM) Framework"
Key Terms: Key Terms for Knowledge Management (KM)
Glossary: The "Knowledge Management (KM) Glossary"
Capabilities: Knowledge Management (KM) as an Enterprise Capability
Ownership: Clearly Defined Knowledge Management (KM) Ownership is Critical for Success
Verbs and Actions: Understanding Why Verbs and Actions are Important to Knowledge Management (KM)
Roles: Key Verb and Action Driven Roles For Knowledge Management (KM)
Taxonomy: Understanding Knowledge Management (KM) Classifications or Categorizations
Ontology: Knowledge Management (KM) Ontology as a Means for Language Standardization
Life Cycle (Lifecycle): Lifecycle Phases for Knowledge Management (KM)
Inventories: Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories
Environments: Knowledge Management (KM) Environments
Metrics: Knowledge Management (KM) Metrics
Services: Knowledge Management (KM) as a Set of Services (a.k.a. Knowledge Management (KM) Services)
Service Paradigms: Centralized Knowledge Management (KM) vs. Federated Knowledge Management (KM)
Principles & Best Practices: Common Principles and Best Practices for Knowledge Management (KM)
Further Reading and Reference Material for Knowledge Management (KM)


Introduction: Introduction to Knowledge Management (KM)

This document represents an aggregated, ordered and contextualized view of the material we've been able to compile and publish that is related to the topic of "Knowledge Management (KM)." The goal is to make this page a landing and launch point for all things related to this topic. As our content becomes more complete and more accurate, this page should become a very useful and powerful knowledge base for this topic and all parties interested in it.

You'll find that the content for this document is consistent with that of other discipline related documents. This is intentional. The consistency is based on a knowledge pattern that helps individuals learn more about different topics, quicker and more efficiently. We hope you find the material useful and easy to learn.

It's important to realize that content in this document and any related sub-documents are constantly evolving. Therefore, we recommend you check for updates, regularly, to keep up with the latest material.

The Foundation always welcomes your feedback and suggestions for improvement, as we're always looking for ways to improve our solutions and offerings to the general community.

All solutions published by the Foundation are subject to the terms and conditions of the Foundation's Master Agreement.


Framework: Using This Artifact as a "Knowledge Management (KM) Framework"

This document or artifact, along with everything in it, is intended to act as a "Framework" that addresses various aspects of Knowledge Management (KM).

The readers will notice that most sections in the Table of Contents (TOC) use a format where the TOC entry is prefixed with a topic name, followed by a short descriptive title (i.e. "TOPIC_NAME: TOPIC_RELATED_SECTION_TITLE"). This is intentional and represents a format by which the Foundation may achieve things like the identification of appropriate topic areas, the segregation of distinct topic areas from each other, the appropriate ordering of topic areas, and achieve the maintenance of consistency, both, within and across different IT Disciplines.

To elaborate, this artifact is intended to:

  1. Organize different areas of the discipline known as Knowledge Management (KM) into clear and compartmentalized areas that allow the Foundation to more effectively and productively collect, document and publish information that pertains to this discipline.
  2. Decompose each area of Knowledge Management (KM) into smaller and, therefore, more digestible units for more efficient learning and understanding.
  3. Document common industry wisdom about each area, piece or subcomponent of Knowledge Management (KM)
  4. Act as a set of Knowledge Management (KM) related best practices and guidelines that have been collected, documented, and published for the benefit of IT Professionals, regardless of their specific industry, line of business, or area of expertise.
  5. Act as a consistent and repeatable pattern for documenting, publishing and learning, both, within this Discipline and across "all" Disciplines.

From the Foundation's perspective, if done correctly, all of the above will allow the Foundation to properly decompose, document and publish content related to each sub-area or sub-topic for each IT Discipline, including this specific discipline (i.e. "Knowledge Management (KM)").

From the reader's perspective, if done correctly, all of the above will allow him or her to easily find and learn about specific areas of interest associated with this and all other IT Disciplines in a manner where the reader may effectively consume and digest material in small atomic segments that act as repeatable and more effective learning units.

As this artifact evolves and progresses, the reader will see it address key areas of the professional IT Discipline "Knowledge Management (KM)" that range from its detailed definition through closely related terms, phrases and their definitions, to its detailed specification of Knowledge Management (KM) Capabilities, and all the way through to defining, delivering, operating and supporting Knowledge Management (KM) Services.

As mentioned previously, this document will continue to evolve and the Foundation recommends the reader check back, regularly, to stay abreast of modifications and new developments. It is also important to understand that the structure of this artifact may change to meet the needs of such evolution.


Key Terms for Knowledge Management (KM)

Before moving on to learn more about the rest of the Knowledge Management (KM) framework, we suggest that you take some time to familiarlize yourself with the following very basic term(s)...

Knowledge:

"1. The subjective and persisted body of experiences and understanding that result from the intake, analysis and interpretation of Data and Information, over a period of time. Knowledge is often thought of as a form of intellectual capital belonging to or derived from an entity, such as a human resource, an enterprise, an organization or a community.

NOTES: A: Knowledge is "not" always factual, as in the cases where people "knew" for generations that the sun revolved around the earth and that the world was flat. B: Knowledge is considered to be constantly evolving, as intake, analysis and interpretation of Data and Information continue. C: Data and Information that have been codified and persisted outside a human brain, such as in a Document or within Multimedia, are also considered to be "Objectified Knowledge"."

Knowledge Management (KM):

"1. The professional discipline that involves working with, in or on any aspect of planning, delivering, operating or supporting for one or more Knowledge Items or any and all solutions put in place to deal with such Items.

2. The solution set that a person or organization puts in place to manage one or more Knowledge Items.

3. The process or processes put in place by a person or organization to assist in the management, coordination, control, delivery, or support of one or more Knowledge Items.

4. The Enterprise Capability that represents the general ability or functional capacity for a Resource or Organization to deal with or handle one or more Knowledge Items. Such a term is often used by Information Technology (IT) Architects when performing or engaging in the activities associated with general Capability Modeling."

In addition to the above basic term(s), you can also learn a great deal about Knowledge Management (KM) by familiarizing yourself with the broader spectrum of terms that make up the Knowledge Management (KM) Glossary...


Glossary: The "Knowledge Management (KM) Glossary"

IT Glossary

Language between IT professionals and the businesses we serve is often a significant barrier to success, as we often spend countless hours trying to interpret each other's meanings. This is often also true between IT professionals who are taught to use certain terms and definitions as part of the organizations and industries they serve. It's when you start to jump from organization to organization, from enterprise to enterprise, and from industry to industry that you realize how much time and effort is wasted on just getting language and meanings correct. For these reasons, the Foundation puts a great deal of focus on terms and phrases, as well as their corresponding definitions. We highly recommend you spend time learning and understanding all of the related terms and phrases, along with their meanings, for all areas of "Knowledge Management (KM)."

Knowledge Management (KM) Glossary
Centralized Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) Process
Decentralized Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) Professional
Enterprise Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) Program
Federated Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) Project
Knowledge Knowledge Management (KM) Reference Architecture
Knowledge Automation Knowledge Management (KM) Release
Knowledge Capacity Management Knowledge Management (KM) Report
Knowledge Catalog Knowledge Management (KM) Reporting
Knowledge Catalogue Knowledge Management (KM) Roadmap
Knowledge Configuration Knowledge Management (KM) Role
Knowledge Configuration Item Knowledge Management (KM) Rule
Knowledge Configuration Management Knowledge Management (KM) Schedule
Knowledge Cost Knowledge Management (KM) Security
Knowledge Data Entity Knowledge Management (KM) Service
Knowledge Database Knowledge Management (KM) Service Assurance
Knowledge Decommission Knowledge Management (KM) Service Contract
Knowledge Delivery Knowledge Management (KM) Service Level Agreement (SLA)
Knowledge Dependency Knowledge Management (KM) Service Level Objective (SLO)
Knowledge Deployment Knowledge Management (KM) Service Level Requirement (SLR)
Knowledge Document Knowledge Management (KM) Service Level Target (SLT)
Knowledge Document Management Knowledge Management (KM) Service Provider
Knowledge File Plan Knowledge Management (KM) Service Request
Knowledge Framework Knowledge Management (KM) Software
Knowledge Governance Knowledge Management (KM) Solution
Knowledge History Knowledge Management (KM) Stakeholder
Knowledge Identifier Knowledge Management (KM) Standard
Knowledge Inventory Knowledge Management (KM) Strategy
Knowledge Item Knowledge Management (KM) Supply
Knowledge Lifecycle Knowledge Management (KM) Support
Knowledge Lifecycle Management Knowledge Management (KM) System
Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) Theory
Knowledge Management (KM) Application Knowledge Management (KM) Training
Knowledge Management (KM) Best Practice Knowledge Management (KM) Vision
Knowledge Management (KM) Blog Knowledge Management (KM) Wiki
Knowledge Management (KM) Capability Knowledge Management (KM) Workflow
Knowledge Management (KM) Center of Excellence Knowledge Management Knowledge
Knowledge Management (KM) Certification Knowledge Metadata
Knowledge Management (KM) Class Knowledge Migration
Knowledge Management (KM) Community of Practice (CoP) Knowledge Plan
Knowledge Management (KM) Course Knowledge Portfolio
Knowledge Management (KM) Data Knowledge Portfolio Management
Knowledge Management (KM) Data Dictionary Knowledge Processing
Knowledge Management (KM) Database Knowledge Record
Knowledge Management (KM) Demand Knowledge Records Management
Knowledge Management (KM) Dependency Knowledge Repository
Knowledge Management (KM) Discussion Forum Knowledge Reuse
Knowledge Management (KM) Document Knowledge Review
Knowledge Management (KM) Documentation Knowledge Schedule
Knowledge Management (KM) File Plan Knowledge Schematic (Schema)
Knowledge Management (KM) Form Knowledge Security
Knowledge Management (KM) Framework Knowledge Software
Knowledge Management (KM) Governance Knowledge Strategy
Knowledge Management (KM) Lessons Learned Knowledge Support
Knowledge Management (KM) Metric Knowledge Taxonomy
Knowledge Management (KM) Operating Model Knowledge Termination
Knowledge Management (KM) Organization Knowledge Tracking
Knowledge Management (KM) Plan Knowledge Tracking Software
Knowledge Management (KM) Platform Knowledge Transaction
Knowledge Management (KM) Policy Knowledge Unique Identifier
Knowledge Management (KM) Portfolio Knowledge Verification
Knowledge Management (KM) Principle Knowledge Version
Knowledge Management (KM) Procedure Knowledge Workflow
Knowledge Management (KM) Process Regional Knowledge Management (KM)

Please refer to the IT Glossary for other terms and phrases that may be relevant to this professional discipline.

Readers may also refer to the Taxonomy of Glossaries for terms and phrases that are semantically grouped according to IT Disciplines or enterprise domains.

This Knowledge Management (KM) Glossary is a contextual subset of the master IF4IT Glossary of Terms and Phrases. The master glossary can be used by you and your enterprise as a foundation for broader understanding of Information Technology and can be used as a teaching and learning tool for those you work with, helping to ensure a common and more standard language.


Capabilities: Knowledge Management (KM) as an Enterprise Capability

A Capability, as it pertains to Information Technology (IT) or to an enterprise that an IT Organization serves, is defined to be "A manageable feature, faculty, function, process, service or discipline that represents an ability to perform something which yields an expected set of results and is capable of further advancement or development. In other words, a Capability is nothing more than "the ability to do something" or, quite simply, a Feature or Function. Therefore, when applied to an enterprise, a Capability represents a critical Enterprise Feature or Enterprise Function.

When it comes to Capabilities, there are multiple types that an enterprise needs to be aware of. Examples include but are not limited to:

As can be seen above, there are Capabilities that are associated with Resources, Organizations, and Assets such as Systems. All are important to an enterprise.

In the case of this IT Discipline (i.e. Knowledge Management (KM)), we use the word Capability in the context of an Enterprise Capability or an IT Capability, which are both equivalent to Enterprise Disciplines or IT Disciplines, respectively. In short, the Capability of Knowledge Management (KM) represents the ability to deal with any and all Knowledge Items and anything relevant that is related to or associated with any Knowledge Items.

If you think about it, a capability is really nothing more than a "verb" or "action that represents "the ability to do something." Understanding this allows us to derive a consistent and highly repeatable set of sub-capabilities for any Noun we're dealing with. For example:

In summary, the implication is that the Enterprise Capability or Enterprise Discipline known as Knowledge Management (KM) is the superset of all the above Sub-Capabilities, as they pertain to or are applied to the discipline-specific Noun: "Knowledge." This now translates more specifically to:

For a more complete list of very specific Capabilities/Disciplines, refer to the Foundation's Master Inventory of IT Disciplines. It is important to note that this inventory is in a flat or non-hierarchical form, specifically because "hierarchy" is almost always a matter of personal preference or context (what hierarchy is important to one Resource or Organization may be unimportant to another's needs or requirements). Therefore, the Foundation has published its inventory of Capabilities in a non-hierarchical, flat form.

This now brings us to a very obvious problem that surrounds Capabilities, which is the fact that there are simply too many "granular" or "specific" Capabilities to document and publish in any single Capability Model. The end result is that a Capability Model may become unwieldy because of trying to incorporate so many different specific Capabilities. Also, Capability Modeling "Purists," who all have their own (and very differing) opinions about how Capability Models should or should not be represented, almost always refuse to get into the details. To address this, we recommend using a generic set of Capabilities that map to and are driven by the Systems Development Life Cycle. For example:

As you can see from the above, we now have a very limited, controlled and manageable set of Discipline-specific Capabilities for the Discipline Knowledge Management (KM).

As a reminder, the above Capability representations are "suggestions" for baselining or initializing your own Enterprise Capability Model (ECM). It's recommended that you take the time to work with your enterprise stakeholders to improve upon and/or customize your own ECM so that you can help meet their needs. However, with that being said, it's always a better idea to go in with a baseline that you can modify rather than building your own solution from scratch, especially if your goals are to standardize, not reinvent the wheel, and not deviate too far from what other enterprises are doing to model their own environments. This is especially true if you've never had any experience building ECMs that have gained and maintained full adoption.

Why do enterprises perform Capability Modeling? Enterprises most often build Capability Models that are associated with Knowledge Management (KM) for the following reasons...

Capability Modeling Recommendations: Some things to consider and keep in mind when working on or creating your Knowledge Management (KM) and Enterprise Capability Models...

Learn More About Capability Models: Taking the time to learn about and understand Capability Models, what they're for, and how they're used may help you learn how Knowledge Management (KM) better fits into the broader enterprise. Therefore, we suggest you spend some time reviewing and understanding the IF4IT Enterprise Capability Model...

Enterprise Capability Model

Ownership: Clearly Defined Knowledge Management (KM) Ownership is Critical for Success

IT Discipline Ownership

Here's a very simple fact... If an enterprise does not establish and enforce clearly defined Ownership (i.e. a Resources and his or her Organization are assigned as accountable ownership) for Knowledge Management (KM), the enterprise has automatically set itself up for failure in its implementation of that discipline. Therefore, if you and your enterprise want to implement and maintain a successful solution for Knowledge Management (KM), there must be a clearly defined Owner that can and will be held accountable for getting work done, providing transparency, helping with strategy setting, and coordinating implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) as a fully functional and mature enterprise Service.

Having clearly defined Ownership should not be confused with having fully dedicated Resources that spend one hundred percent of their time working on Knowledge Management (KM). In fact, smaller enterprises can rarely afford to dedicate full time Resources, like larger enterprises can, to all enterprise IT Disciplines. This being the case, all IT Disciplines, including Knowledge Management (KM), should "always" have clearly defined Owners so that there is always a clear point of accountability and contact for any issues or work that need to be addressed.

In addition to the common best practice of having clearly assigned Ownership for Knowledge Management (KM), it is also considered a best practice to clearly publish and socialize Knowledge Management (KM) Ownership details to a centralized location (often referred to as a "Service Catalog" or an "Enterprise Service Catalog"), along with Ownership details for all other IT Disciplines, so that the entire enterprise has constant access to it.

Canonical Ownership of an Enterprise Capability

Figure: How Ownership of the Capability Knowledge Management (KM) fits into the Canonical Model for IT

The above figure helps us understand how Capability or Discipline Ownership fits into the Canonical Model for Information Technology (IT) (i.e. "Think," "Deliver," and "Operate"). Owners are assigned to individual Disciplines or Capabilities, such as Knowledge Management (KM), and are instantly made accountable to the enterprise for the results of all Knowledge Management (KM) Thinking activities (i.e. Strategy, Research, Planning and Design), all Knowledge Management (KM) Delivery activities (i.e. Construction, Deployment and Quality Assurance), and all Knowledge Management (KM) Operations activities (i.e. Use, Maintenance and Support). Done correctly, Knowledge Management (KM) Ownership is constant and ongoing. It's important to understand that such assigned Ownership should "never" end so that there is clear and constant accountability and transparency for all aspects of the Canonical Model to the enterprise.

Not having clear Ownership for Knowledge Management (KM) means that there is no clear understanding of who is accountable for it, who can provide understanding of what's going on within it, who can help the enterprise provide short term and long term descriptions of work being performed within the Discipline area to improve it over time for its customers, and who can help with getting work done that's associated with it. It means your or your enterprise's implementation for Knowledge Management (KM) will be highly incomplete and erratic because no one is constantly (or even partially) watching over the Discipline and its needs for maintenance and evolution. Not having clear Knowledge Management (KM) Ownership is a recipe for confusion and, sometimes, even chaos.

In summary, if you and your enterprise truly want to be successful with your implementation of Knowledge Management (KM), ensure that a clear and highly accountable owner is identified and assigned to the Discipline. Publish those ownership details, preferably in an enterprise's Service Catalog, and socialize it so everyone knows whom to go to for answers and for help with Knowledge Management (KM) related work. In other words, if you want to implement Knowledge Management (KM) as an enterprise Service, then you absolutely must start with clearly defined, published and socialized Ownership.


Verbs and Actions: Understanding Why Verbs and Actions are Important to Knowledge Management (KM)

Throughout the Foundation's documentation, you will continuously run into the references of "Nouns and Verbs." These concepts are key to consistency and standardization, throughout the IT Industry, down to each and every IT Discipline. Given that we've discussed the impact of "Nouns" on the discipline of "Knowledge Management (KM)," this section will start to discuss the importance of "Verbs" or "Actions" that can be performed with or against the key Noun or Nouns associated with this Discipline. To reiterate, Verbs or Actions allow us to clearly understand what can be performed on or with the Noun in question. As will be discussed in the next section, Verbs or Actions will also help us clearly identify whom it is (i.e. the "who" or more specifically the Roles) that performs or executes such Verbs or Actions against a Discipline and its associated Noun or Nouns. As will be discussed later, Verbs or Actions will also help identify key Attributes (i.e. Field Names) that are necessary for the very data definition of the Noun or Nouns for this Discipline and will even help identify which Verbs or Actions can be automated for this Discipline.

As a reminder, the base Noun for the discipline known as Knowledge Management (KM) is: "Knowledge," which is sometimes referred to as a the Noun: "Knowledge Item."

By now, it should be becoming apparent that verbs represent a baseline for defining solid functional requirements and sub-capabilities for what would be a part of any good Knowledge Management (KM) System or Service. What this means is that if you and/or your Organization is looking for a solution in this space (e.g. the purchasing or building of a software solution or the implementation of a Service to address the needs of Knowledge Management (KM)), you could use discipline-related verbs to drive the foundation of what the solution should or shouldn't do, as mapped to specific stakeholders that will use or provide the solution.

Examples of the types of Verbs or Actions that are important to this Discipline include but are not limited to:

The above list represents a very small subset of all Verbs or Actions that are relevant for this Discipline. The more complete set can be found in the Roles section of this document, where readers can see the direct correlation of Verb to Noun and to, both, Generic Role and Discipline Specific Role.


Roles: Key Verb and Action Driven Roles For Knowledge Management (KM)

An "action" or a "verb" is something that can be performed on or with a specific "noun." The reason it is important to itemize all relevant verbs is because we can now start to determine what we can or cannot do with the noun in question, where in this case the noun is "Knowledge."

Actions/Verbs Example as Applied to "Knowledge" Generic Roles Discipline-Specific Roles
Administrate Administrate Knowledge Administrator Knowledge Administrator
Approve Approve Knowledge Approver Knowledge Approver
Architect Architect Knowledge Architector Knowledge Architector
Archive Archive Knowledge Archiver Knowledge Archiver
Audit Audit Knowledge Auditor Knowledge Auditor
Bundle Bundle Knowledge Bundler Knowledge Bundler
Clone Clone Knowledge Cloner Knowledge Cloner
Code Code Knowledge Coder Knowledge Coder
Configure Configure Knowledge Configurer Knowledge Configurer
Copy Copy Knowledge Copier Knowledge Copier
Create Create Knowledge Creator Knowledge Creator
Decommission Decommission Knowledge Decommissioner Knowledge Decommissioner
Delete Delete Knowledge Deletor Knowledge Deletor
Deploy Deploy Knowledge Deployer Knowledge Deployer
Deprecate Deprecate Knowledge Deprecator Knowledge Deprecator
Design Design Knowledge Designer Knowledge Designer
Destroy Destroy Knowledge Destroyer Knowledge Destroyer
Develop Develop Knowledge Developer Knowledge Developer
Distribute Distribute Knowledge Distributor Knowledge Distributor
Download Download Knowledge Downloader Knowledge Downloader
Edit Edit Knowledge Editor Knowledge Editor
Educate Educate Knowledge Educator Knowledge Educator
Export Export Knowledge Exporter Knowledge Exporter
Govern Govern Knowledge Governor Knowledge Governor
Import Import Knowledge Importer Knowledge Importer
Initialize Initialize Knowledge Initializer Knowledge Initializer
Install Install Knowledge Installer Knowledge Installer
Instantiate Instantiate Knowledge Instantiator Knowledge Instantiator
Integrate Integrate Knowledge Integrator Knowledge Integrator
Manage Manage Knowledge Manager Knowledge Manager
Merge Merge Knowledge Merger Knowledge Merger
Modify Modify Knowledge Modifier Knowledge Modifier
Move Move Knowledge Mover Knowledge Mover
Own Own Knowledge Owner Knowledge Owner
Package Package Knowledge Packager Knowledge Packager
Persist Persist Knowledge Persister Knowledge Persister
Plan Plan Knowledge Planner Knowledge Planner
Purge Purge Knowledge Purger Knowledge Purger
Receive Receive Knowledge Receiver Knowledge Receiver
Record Record Knowledge Recorder Knowledge Recorder
Recover Recover Knowledge Recoverer Knowledge Recoverer
Register Register Knowledge Registrar Knowledge Registrar
Relocate Relocate Knowledge Relocator Knowledge Relocator
Reject Reject Knowledge Rejecter Knowledge Rejecter
Remove Remove Knowledge Remover Knowledge Remover
Replicate Replicate Knowledge Replicator Knowledge Replicator
Report Report Knowledge Reporter Knowledge Reporter
Request Request Knowledge Requestor Knowledge Requestor
Restore Restore Knowledge Restorer Knowledge Restorer
Review Review Knowledge Reviewer Knowledge Reviewer
Save Save Knowledge Saver Knowledge Saver
Search Search Knowledge Searcher Knowledge Searcher
Split Split Knowledge Splitter Knowledge Splitter
Sponsor Sponsor Knowledge Sponsor Knowledge Sponsor
Store Store Knowledge Storer Knowledge Storer
Strategize Strategize Knowledge (or Set Knowledge Strategy) Strategizer (or Strategy Setter) Knowledge Strategizer (or Knowledge Strategy Setter)
Support Support Knowledge Supporter Knowledge Supporter
Test Test Knowledge Tester Knowledge Tester
Train Train Knowledge Trainer Knowledge Trainer
Upgrade Upgrade Knowledge Upgrader Knowledge Upgrader
Upload Upload Knowledge Uploader Knowledge Uploader
Verify Verify Knowledge Verifier Knowledge Verifier
Version Version Knowledge Versioner Knowledge Versioner
View View Knowledge Viewer Knowledge Viewer

At a minimum, the above list of Verbs can be used to help identify, track, and manage the basic "Features" required by and associated with Knowledge Management (KM), even if your enterprise doesn't maintain a Capability Model that lists specific Knowledge Management (KM) Capabilities. Application designers, developers, and architects often find such Verb Lists or Feature Inventories to be invaluable.


Taxonomy: Understanding Knowledge Management (KM) Classifications or Categorizations

IF4IT Taxonomies

A Taxonomy, in its noun form, is defined as:

...a documented and orderly set of types, classifications, categorizations and/or principles that are often achieved through mechanisms including but not limited to naming, defining and/or the grouping of attributes, and which ultimately help to describe, differentiate, identify, arrange and provide contextual relationships between the entities for which the Taxonomy exists.

From this general definition, we can derive that the definition for a Knowledge Management (KM) Taxonomy is:

...a documented and orderly set of types, classifications, categorizations and/or principles that are often achieved through mechanisms including but not limited to naming, defining and/or the grouping of attributes, and which ultimately help to describe, differentiate, identify, arrange and provide contextual relationships between Knowledge Items, Entities or Types.

In short, what this means all means is that a Taxonomy is nothing more than a classification or typing mechanism and that a Knowledge Taxonomy is nothing more than a classification or typing mechanism that helps people and systems distinguish between different Knowledge Items, Entities, Types, Records or any other Knowledge Management (KM) element you can think of.

It's important to understand that Taxonomies can be as simple as a list of relevant terms or phrases with respective meanings or definitions or they can take on more complex forms, such as hierarchical and graphical model structures that can be homogeneous and heterogeneous in nature. More complex Taxonomies include examples such as "Visual Taxonomies" and "Audible Taxonomies" but, expect in the case of very special technologies, are typically out of scope for general Information Technology (IT) Operations.

The Foundation directs readers to its ever-evolving Inventory of Taxonomies for Standard Taxonomy suggestions. Specifically, readers may want to start with the Taxonomy of Taxonomies, which helps make it clear that the IT Industry is composed of many hundreds if not thousands of Taxonomies, Classifications, Categorizations or Types.


Ontology: Knowledge Management (KM) Ontology as a Means for Lanagugae Standardization

While Taxonomies represent organized classifications or types, you can think of Ontologies as the design and representation of entire lanaguages, with the specific intent to control things like structure, behavior, representation, and meaning. Without getting into a theoretical conversations about Ontologies, you can view this entire article as a foundation for the ontology of Knowledge Management (KM). Or, in other words, a Knowledge Management (KM) Ontology.

Throughout this artifact/framework, you will find things like Knowledge Management (KM) related terms, phrases, definitions, roles, responsibilities, nouns, verbs, classifications, and so on, all as a means of definining a standard representation for and interpretation of the language of Knowledge Management (KM).

It is only through the definition, communication, and establishment of such Ontologies that we can standardize language and communication associated with Knowledge Management (KM), whether it be between humans and/or systems.


Life Cycle (Lifecycle): Lifecycle Phases for Knowledge Management (KM)

When we talk about Life Cycle (or lifecycle) for Knowledge Management (KM), it's important to keep in mind that there are two different types of Life Cycles that apply. The first is a Data Life Cycle, which addresses Knowledge Management (KM) data or entities, and the second is associated with delivering Knowledge Management (KM) Assets like Systems or Software solutions.

Knowledge Management (KM) Data Life Cycle Phases:

Data Lifecycle (or Life Cycle) for any and all data is the period from the "inception" of data through to its ultimately being "purged" from existence. This is no different for Knowledge Management (KM) related data.

Like the data associated with any other professional IT Discipline, Knowledge Management (KM) related data adheres to the following common Data Lifecycle Phases:

Data Lifecycle Phases

Figure: Knowledge Management (KM) Lifecycle Phases

  1. Inception: Data is in it's raw idea-like form and is not ready for consumption by the general population because it has not been documented or registered, anywhere, in a formal manner.
  2. Creation and Registration: Data is formally put into existence for day-to-day use by appropriate stakeholders.
  3. Iterative Maintenance: Data is in a mode of constant use and is updated and modified, as needed, to meet the needs of daily use by various stakeholders.
  4. Decommission and Deletion: Data is prepared for deletion and eventually deleted from daily operational use but still exists for administrative or organizational purposes, such as historical auditing. It can be restored to any one of its relevant last states and, therefore, can be brought back into existence for day-to-day use.
  5. Purged From Existence: Data is completely removed from an environment with no means to restore or reconstruct it, without recreating it from scratch and with no guarantees that it will match it's previous state.

The above Life Cycle Phases represent the high level transitions that occur from the inception of Knowledge Items or Entities all the way through to their complete elimination from existence. A more detailed breakdown of these transitions or phases represents what are referred to as "Knowledge Management (KM) States."

Knowledge Management (KM) Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phases or Knowledge Management (KM) Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phases:

The SDLC is a means for facilitating and controlling how IT Professionals deliver Assets, such as Knowledge Management (KM) Systems and Software. In this case, you should default to the master SDLC, which is used to deliver any Asset of any type, including those associated with the Knowledge Management (KM) discipline.

Knowledge Management (KM) SDLC Diagram

Inventories: Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories

There are probably no greater or more important tools for providing Knowledge Management (KM) transparency and direction than the collection, ordering, categorizing, grouping, and maintenance of all related Knowledge Items. In other words, Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories.

In short, an Inventory represents a list of individual things or instances of things that are typically all of the same Noun Type or Data Type, where these instances are described and detailed by their Attributes, along with the Data and Information that act as values for such Attributes.

At a minimum, Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories are used for the establishment of solid Knowledge Configuration Management practices, as the Knowledge Instances tracked within such Knowledge Inventories act as Configuration Items (in Target and/or Dependency form) for key Configurations (Knowledge Management (KM) Configurations or otherwise).

Inventories are also used for solid decision making. Good decisions, either strategic or tactical, are made based on having good Data and Information. And, good Data and Information only come from taking the time to follow best practices associated with Inventory Management. It's only through building such Inventories that an enterprise can achieve solid Knowledge Management (KM) Business Intelligence and Reporting.

Also, it's these very same Inventories that act as the foundation for understanding and managing Total Cost of Ownership (a.k.a. "TCO") for Knowledge Management (KM). Without such Inventories, trying to understand your costs can be nothing more than uneducated guessing.

The obvious place to start is with Knowledge Inventories and then move on to surrounding Inventories that are directly and indirectly related to Knowledge Management (KM).

Additionally, there are many other types of Inventories that are common and important to Knowledge Management (KM), which include but are not limited to examples such as:

  1. People and Organizations related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  2. Roles, Responsibilities, and Skills related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  3. Products and Services related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  4. Capabilities related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  5. Contracts, Agreements, and Licenses related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  6. Processes related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  7. Tools and Technologies (e.g. Systems/Applications/Software/Computers) related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  8. Data Types and Instances related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  9. Data Interfaces related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  10. Environments related to Knowledge Management (KM)
  11. Facilities and Locations related to Knowledge Management (KM)

If you and/or your enterprise are not collecting and maintaining such Inventories, you're probably considered to be very low on the efficiency and effectiveness maturity scale.

It's important to keep in mind that collecting and managing Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories is something that should be performed across all phases of Knowledge Management (KM) Lifecycle and across all Environments (i.e. Knowledge Management (KM) Environments). Both are considered to be very important Best Practices. For example, you and/or your enterprise cannot get a complete understanding of Knowledge Management (KM) costs or impacts without knowing all related Inventory Items in all environments. And, tracking across all lifecycle phases gives a temporal perspective that is important for things like problem analysis, historical reporting, and the reconstruction of state (i.e. Configuration Management).

NOTE: Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories are also important for other enterprise functions, such as Architecture and Design. Such Inventories represent the foundation for understanding an enterprise's Current State and are critical for planning Future State and any related strategies, roadmaps, and transition plans for facilititating change.


Environments: Knowledge Management (KM) Environments

Building environments that are specific to and for the discipline known as Knowledge Management (KM) is no different than doing so for any other discipline area. The reader should, therefore, refer to the IT Environment Framework to understand such environments.

IT Environment Framework for Knowledge Management (KM)

Metrics: Knowledge Management (KM) Metrics

As with any professional Discipline, the place to start with when dealing with Knowledge Management (KM) specific metrics is with standard metrics categorizations. Standard Metrics Categorizations, or what are commonly referred to as "SMCs," include but are not limited to...

Knowledge Management (KM) Quantitative Metrics: Quantitative metrics for Knowledge Management (KM) often revolve around the "counting" of key constructs that are associated with the Discipline. For example, the number of Knowledge Items or Entities that have been Created, Edited or Modified, Copied or Cloned, Destroyed, Archived, Restored, etc. (Note the correlations to key Knowledge Management (KM) Verbs!). Also, the counts for things like the number of Knowledge Management (KM) Stakeholders, such as but not limited to Paying Customers, End Users, Employees, Consultants, etc. are also very useful.

Knowledge Management (KM) Qualitative Metrics: Qualitative metrics for Knowledge Management (KM) often revolve around concepts such as Knowledge Management (KM) Defects, Failures, Problems, Incidents, and/or Issues. So, for example, if we were to capture the number of Knowledge Management (KM) Defects (i.e. their counts) over time, we could do things like see if Defect quantities are going up or down, over time, allowing us to explore that area for things like correlating Causes and Effects.

Knowledge Management (KM) Time Metrics: When dealing with Knowledge Management (KM) Time Metrics, there are usually two forms. The first was introduced in the previous paragraph, which has to do with capturing and measuring things like Quantitative or Qualitative Metrics, over time. In this case, we capture other metric categories, over time, with the intent to see how they change and perform, based on modifications to the Knowledge Management (KM) Operating Environment. The second form of Time related metrics has to do with system or operational performance, such as in the case of how long it takes to process a Knowledge Management (KM) Request, from the time it is created to the time the Requester gets a satisfactory deliverable that allows him or her to move on with his or her work.

Knowledge Management (KM) Utilization Metrics: Utilization Metrics specifically have to do with the consumption of Knowledge Management (KM) specific solutions or deliverables. For example, tracking the number of Knowledge Management (KM) Service Requests, over periods of time, along with their corresponding Knowledge Management (KM) Deliverables, allows one to measure how active Knowledge Management (KM) Services are against other Services that may exist within the Enterprise.

Knowledge Management (KM) Financial Metrics: As is always the case for any single Discipline, Financial Metrics for Knowledge Management (KM) always revolve around things like revenue, expenses, and profits, both, for operators of the Service or Services and for consumers of the Service or Services. For example, if a Knowledge Management (KM) Request is invoked by a Knowledge Management (KM) Customer (acting as the "Requester"), it becomes important to be able to identify and understand what the cost is to that Customer who is invoking the Request, and it also becomes important to understand why that cost is what it is. In the case of Services that do not yield revenue or profits, measuring costs is a strong way to, at very least, help understand the costs associated with each Service being performed by, within, external to, and for the Enterprise and its Customers.

Note: It's important to understand that, when it comes to metrics, enterprises should take a "Crawl," "Walk," "Run" approach to collecting, working with, and understanding them. That is, you cannot get to complex metrics collection, dissection, analysis, and understanding until you start with basic metrics and slowly work your way to more complex metrics representations.


Services: Knowledge Management (KM) as a Set of Services (a.k.a. Knowledge Management (KM) Services)

One of the most important concepts you will learn about Knowledge Management (KM) (or any Discipline, for that matter) is the notion of implementing the Discipline as an accountable, planned, controlled, transparent, and managed "Service."

In short, Services represent a logically "bounded" and repeatable sets of work types, activities or tasks that are performed by humans and/or machines, with the specific intent to provide outputs or deliverables, in the form of solutions for the requesting Stakeholders who are commonly considered the customers of such Services. In other words, we perform and/or provide a Service to deliver very specific solutions to very specific Stakeholders who are looking for a means to solve a certain problem they have.

A Knowledge Management (KM) Service is defined as:

"1. A set of solutions, either transactional (i.e. Transactional Knowledge Management Services) or dial-tone (i.e. Dial-Tone Knowledge Management Services), that are being or have been put in place to yield an intended, controlled, expected, repeatable and measurable set of results or deliverables for Knowledge Management specific Customers, Consumers or Clients.

NOTE: Knowledge Management Service Consumers or Clients can be either Human Resources or Systems."

All Services, including Knowledge Management (KM) Services, can be performed manually (i.e. by people), automatically (i.e. by machines such as Computers), or by a combination of the two (i.e. a hybrid that is both manually and automated).

Also, all Services, including Knowledge Management (KM) Services, can be either transactional or dial tone, in nature.

In the case of Transactional Services for Knowledge Management (KM), a Service Request is submitted and that Request is fulfilled as part of a process that is either manual, automated, or a hybrid of both (e.g. a Service to perform maintainance on your Knowledge Management (KM) System).

In the case of Dial Tone Services for Knowledge Management (KM), a Service is expected to be up, running, available, and accessible to an End User so that he/she/it may perform some controlled and highly repeatable function (e.g. a "Knowledge Management (KM) System" that is up and running all the time).

Knowledge Management (KM) Service Components: The successful implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) as a set of Services for your enterprise usually implies that a number of key components have been established to support it. These components are:

  1. A clearly documented and socialized Knowledge Management (KM) Service Owner that is held accountable for Service performance, quality, and cost.
  2. A clearly documented and socialized Knowledge Management (KM) Service Provider, Organization or Group who is performing the Service or work.
  3. A clearly documented and socialized inventory of all Knowledge Management (KM) Service Inputs, including Knowledge Management (KM) Service Requests and any artifacts necessary to support such Requests so that consumers of the Service know how to engage and request or take advantage of them.
  4. For every Knowledge Management (KM) Service Input, a clearly documented and socialized inventory of Knowledge Management (KM) Service Outputs, making it clear to consumers what they can expect to receive as a result of a successful Service Request.
  5. For every Knowledge Management (KM) Service Input, a clearly documented and socialized inventory of the work being performed by the Service Provider to achieve such Outputs or Deliverables.
  6. For every Knowledge Management (KM) Service Input, a clearly documented and socialized inventory Service Level Agreements (e.g. Service Availability, Service Duration, Service Guarantees, etc.) that can be used to set expectations and measure actuals against for said Service Outputs.
  7. Clearly specified Knowledge Management (KM) Service Costs that help set expectations for Service Requesters (i.e. the cost of a request) and that provide clear transparency to the organizations that fund and sponsor such Services (i.e. the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) your Service(s).
  8. Knowledge Management (KM) Service Request Patterns (Estimation Creation, Modification, Decommission, Support/Incidents, Complaints, etc.) in order to create intuitive and repeatable user experiences across different Service Types.
  9. Clearly understand what Knowledge Management (KM) Service Resources are required, human or otherwise, to create and deliver your Knowledge Management (KM) Service Deliverables, in a repeatable, cost-efficient, timely, and high quality manner.
  10. For every Knowledge Management (KM) Service Request, understand the chargeback mechanism, in order to recoup your Service Costs.
  11. For every Knowledge Management (KM) Service, it's important to understand the skills that are required, will need to be developed, and will need to be maintained by Service Resources, in order to deliver each Service Deliverable.
  12. It's important to understand who your Knowledge Management (KM) Service Stakeholders are, this includes but is not limited to your Customers, Consumers, Clients, Sponsers, etc. are, as well as the types of problems it is that they're trying to solve or interests that they will have in your Services.

Knowledge Management (KM) Ownership: The most important thing to understand about a Knowledge Management (KM) Service is that, in order for such a Service to be successful, there must be a clear and accountable Owner for it. That is, there needs to be a very clear and accountable named person or organization that owns and is fully responsible for the Service, all of its sub-Services and, most importantly, all of the Service's "Outcomes." Without clear ownership, Services are almost never successful. And, for those few occasions where Services are successful without clear ownership, you can assume that they're successful because the people working in those Service areas are acting as heroes, or... the those Services are just plain lucky (that kind of luck doesn't last for long).

Knowledge Management (KM) Service Inputs: There are typically two types of inputs to any Knowledge Management (KM) Service. The first is what is known as a "Knowledge Management (KM) Service Request" and the second really represents any and all supporting artifacts that are necessary to support such requests, including but not limited to Data and Information in the form of Documents, either electronic or paper in form. Many would argue that the "money" to pay for the Service execution of the Request would be the third but, for now, we will assume that payment is controlled through the Data and Information provided to the Service Operators, in support of the Request.

Knowledge Management (KM) Service Outputs: The outputs of any Service are often referred to as the Service's Deliverables. Therefore, the readers should be aware that the terms "Knowledge Management (KM) Outputs" and "Knowledge Management (KM) Deliverables" are synonymous and interchangeable. All work performed in any enterprise is, by default, a Service that is being performed for someone else and, therefore, all work or Services yield results. These results are the Service's Outputs or Deliverables and a good Service ensures that such Outputs are appropriately documented to the consumers of said Service. This means that for any given Knowledge Management (KM) Service Request Type or Category there will be one or more clearly defined and documented Outputs or Deliverables, making it clear to the consumer what he, she, or they will get in response to their Request. This can be as simple as an answer to a question or as complex as the Merger of two enterprises.

Knowledge Management (KM) Service Levels: Service Levels represent "performance agreements," contractual or otherwise, that dictate how well a Knowledge Management (KM) Service should perform, most often keeping the Customers, Consumers, Clients or End Users of the Service in mind. Knowledge Management (KM) Service Levels can come in many forms and are often worked out by the Customers paying for the Services and the Service Providers who sell or provide the Services. In many cases, Service Levels are also self-imposed by the Service Providers performing the Services as a means to set expectations for Service Customers. In short, Knowledge Management (KM) Service Levels are constraints, limitations, and/or expectations that are tied directly to Knowledge Management (KM) Service Deliverables. They represent measures for things like quality, efficiency, and cost against said Deliverables or Outputs that allow the consumer of such Services to measure what they actually get against what they expected to get.


Service Paradigms: Centralized Knowledge Management (KM) vs. Federated Knowledge Management (KM)

Assuming an enterprise pursues the establishment of Knowledge Management (KM) as a set of controlled Services, there are three common paradigms for doing so. These include:

  1. A "Centralized Knowledge Management (KM)" implementation paradigm
  2. A "Federated Knowledge Management (KM)" implementation paradigm
  3. A "Hybrid Knowledge Management (KM)" implementation paradigm

Centralized Knowledge Management (KM) is defined as:

"1. The term or phrase that implies establishing and/or practicing the Discipline known as Knowledge Management (KM) as a concentric and singular set of organizations and services, usually in order to serve an entire enterprise, regardless of geographic location, further implying full centralization and no federation of any and all Knowledge Management (KM) associated Work, Activities, Actions, Tasks, Capabilities and/or Services."

Federated Knowledge Management (KM), which is also referred to as Decentralized Knowledge Management (KM), is defined as:

"1. The term or phrase that implies establishing and/or practicing the Discipline known as Knowledge Management (KM) in multiple pockets, communities, or organizations, further implying no centralization in the implementation and execution of Knowledge Management (KM) associated Work, Activities, Actions, Tasks, Capabilities and/or Services."

There are clear tradeoffs to each of the two models. For example, in a Centralized paradigm, it's normally easier to coordinate work and provide broad coverage, across many areas of the enterprise and relevant stakeholders. However, it becomes far more difficult for a centralized organization to properly fund and staff resources and services in order to perform all required work across all stakeholders, in a much larger enterprise.

It's also important to note that a third paradigm also exists as an option. This is known as a Hybrid Knowledge Management (KM) paradigm or model. In this case, there is a centralized Knowledge Management (KM) organization that is often responsible for things like centralized governance, command, control, and communications, while federated staff and services deal with localized forms of Knowledge Management (KM). In this type of paradigm, federated staff and services usually report direclty into their local management but may have matrix reporting or responsibilities into the Centralized Knowledge Management (KM) organization.


Principles & Best Practices: Common Principles and Best Practices for Knowledge Management (KM)

A "Principle" is defined as being: "A professed assumption, basis, tenet, doctrine, plan of action or code of conduct for activities, work or behavior." Therefore, we can deduce the definition of "a Knowledge Management (KM) Principle" to be:

Knowledge Management (KM) Principle: "1. A professed assumption, basis, tenet, doctrine, plan of action or code of conduct for any activities, work or behavior associated with the Discipline known as Knowledge Management (KM)."

A "Best Practice" is defined as being: "One or more Activities, Actions, Tasks or Functions that often do not conform with strict Standards and that have evolved, over time, to be considered as conventional wisdom for consistently and repeated achieving Outcomes or Results that can be measured as being equal to or above acceptable norms." Therefore, we can deduce the definition of "a Knowledge Management (KM) Best Practice" to be:

Knowledge Management (KM) Best Practice: "1. One or more Knowledge Management (KM) related Activities, Actions, Tasks or Functions that often do not conform with strict standards and that have evolved, over time, to be considered as conventional wisdom for consistently and repeatedly achieving Outcomes or Results that can be measured as being equal to or above acceptable norms."

The plural form of this term would be "Knowledge Management (KM) Best Practices."

Common Knowledge Management (KM) related principles and best practices exist to help achieve higher than average expectations of quality and to ease in the implementation, support, operations, and future change associated with the solutions industry professionals put in place to address the needs of this Discipline and all its related stakeholders.

While this entire document is meant to represent and serve as a set of common principles and best practices for Knowledge Management (KM), the following list represents a summary of some very basic examples of what implementers, supporters, and operators of Knowledge Management (KM) should constantly be working toward:

Principle or Best Practice Description
Establish and always have very clear Ownership for Knowledge Management (KM). Establishing, publishing and socializing clear Ownership for Knowledge Management (KM) allows an enterprise and all its Resources, regardless of their geographic location, to assign accountability for all aspects of the Discipline. It also ensures that there's always at least one person that everyone can go to for transparency into the Discipline as well as for handling work that is associated with the Discipline.
Define, Collect, and Manage Relevant Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories. As an IT professional, there are probably few things that are as important as knowing what is or is not in your portfolio, as well as understanding key traits about your portfolio. You cannot achieve this without the transparency provided by your inventories. Therefore, it is critical that you clearly define, collect, manage, and govern any and all relevant Knowledge Management (KM) inventories. Lack of Knowledge Management (KM) Inventories means no transparency, a chaotic and immature environment, and (even worse) the implication that you don't know how to do your job.
Always use standard terminology for Knowledge Management (KM), in order to standardize communications between stakeholders. It is often argued that the biggest mistake you can make is to create your own words and/or your own definitions, when communicating with others. There is no place where this is more accurate than in the field of Information Technology. IT Stakeholders make up their own words and definitions far too often, or let their business constituents do so. When you make up words or definitions, or you let others do so, you're creating a grave injustice for your organization. Self invented terminology and grammar often leads to poor communications, which in turn leads to redundancy of solutions, higher complexity of environments, slower delivery times, and much higher costs. Therefore, the IF4IT always recommends that you leverage standard terminology for Knowledge Management (KM), whenever possible.
Centralization of Knowledge related data. While often impossible to centralize and collocate all Knowledge related data and information, especially in a geographically dispersed environment, Knowledge Management (KM) related stakeholders should always strive to centralize all data and information. The goals are to eliminate data fragmentation, improve source of truth for data, reduce the number of systems needed to support stakeholders, reduce the complexity of solutions, improve usability, and to ultimately reduce the costs associated with Knowledge Management (KM).
Clearly define, implement, track, and analyze Knowledge Management (KM) Metrics. In order to successfully set up the discipline of Knowledge Management (KM) and its related Services, it is critical to clearly define, track, and constantly analyze Knowledge Management (KM) metrics. Such metrics include but are not limited to Supply and Demand Metrics (i.e. Operational Metrics), Performance Metrics, Quality Metrics, and Financial Metrics.
Transparency of Knowledge related data. Stakeholders should always strive to make any and all Knowledge Management (KM) data transparent to all other appropriate stakeholders, at a minimum, and often to the entire enterprises. The exception when private user data must be protected. Many stakeholders often make the mistake of treating internal operational data as private or protected. This often creates a data silo and will often lead to internally silo-ed organizations that revolve around such data silos.
Do not let "perfection" of Knowledge Management (KM) solutions stand in the way of "good enough solutions". Often, Knowledge Management (KM) stakeholders "overthink" solutions, leading to the impression that best-of-breed or perfect solutions are more effective than "good enough" solutions. Experience tells us that "good enough" is, almost always, the better path to follow. We live in an age where technologies grow old in the blink of an eye. Even the implementation of something that looks perfect, today, will look antiquated, tomorrow. This is especially true if your enterprise doesn't have a long term funding plan and commitment to improvements and upgrades of the solution(s) put in place.
Follow industry Standards, Best Practices, and Guiding Principles for Knowledge Management (KM), whenever possible". One of the most common errors many enterprises make is to create solutions from scratch or without the guidance, assistance and/or experience of others who have created such solutions, before them. Whenever possible, the IF4IT recommends that you research existing Standards, Best Practices, and Guiding Principles to avoid the mistakes of others, while also gaining from their successes. Remember, we live in a vast world. Chances are very high that someone else has already experienced the pain you're about to create for yourself. Wise people will always look to learn from such people's experiences before they go down the road of implementing their own solutions.
Work toward and maintain a Single Source of Truth (SSoT), whenever possible. While it may be impossible to truly maintain a Single Source of Truth (SSoT) for all data items at all times, especially in the case where the same data entity or instance enters an enterprise through unique data channels, it is an accepted, industry-wide best practice to always work toward such a goal.

Further Reading and Reference Material for Knowledge Management (KM)

The Information Technology (IT) Learning Framework. A tutorial that helps understand Information Technology and how disciplines, such as this one, fits into the bigger picture of IT Operations.

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